The 10-minute online survey targeted members of the general population in the U.S. ages 3 and older. Because of legal and ethical constraints around interviewing children, adults with children in the household reported for the children ages 3 to 17 in their homes. To qualify, respondents were required to meet the following criteria:
- Ages 18 or older
- Reside in the U.S.
View the survey questions here.
Key characteristics of the methodology are as follows:
- Bicycling participation was defined very broadly. Respondents indicated how many days in the past 12 months they “rode a bicycle of any type outside for any reason.”
- Bicycling participation was measured in the context of ten activities.
- Research suggests that measuring bicycling participation in the context of a single activity artificially inflates reported participation whereas asking about bicycling participation in the context of more than 25 activities artificially deflates reported participation.
- The list of activities in which bicycling is measured includes leisure activities, transportation, sports, and chores so it doesn’t set a cognitive framework for either recreational or transportation bicycling.
- The ten activities were presented in random order across respondents to control for order effects.
- To control for positive response bias, respondents who reported having visited a fictional website within the past 12 months were terminated from the study.
- Pre-testing indicated that 58% of those who reported having visited the fictional website reported having participated in all ten activities compared to only 5% of those who didn’t report having visited the fictional website.
- Participation estimates were externally validated. The Pew Research Center (2013) estimated that 76% of adults in the U.S. read at least one book in the past year. The results of this study suggest that 74% of adults read a book at least one day in the past year.
The study was fielded to an online sample representative of the general population (SSI). The panel is balanced on a number of characteristics to ensure that it accurately reflects the U.S. general population. Quotas were set for age, region, and gender to ensure large enough sample for profiling.
A total of 16,193 completed interviews were collected from adults 18+ who reported on a total of 8,858 children between the ages of 3 and 17 inclusive. This sample provides an overall margin of error +/- less than 1% at a 95% level of confidence.
The final sample was weighted to reflect the U.S. population ages 3 and over for age, gender, region, ethnicity, and income. Weighting targets were generated based on the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey.
Special Thanks: Advisory Board
We offer a special thanks to our advisory board who reviewed the survey methodology and provided valuable feedback.
- Ralph Buehler: Associate Professor, Urban Affairs & Planning, Virginia Tech
- Charles Chancellor: Associate Professor, Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University
- Jennifer Dill: Professor, Nohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies & Planning, Portland State University
- Susan Handy: Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California at Davis
- Kevin Krizek: Professor, Programs in Environmental Design & Environmental Studies, University of Colorado
- Anne Lusk: Research Scientist, Harvard School of Public Health
- Nancy McGuckin: Travel Behavior Analyst
- Chris Monsere: Associate Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Portland State University
- Elliot Rossen: Executive Vice President, Market Opportunities and Innovation, GfK Consumer Experiences North America
- Dean Runyan: President, Dean Runyan and Associates
- Elaine Zanutto: Vice President of Methods and Analytics, Naxion